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While the vines are bare and the autumn grape harvest is still eight months away, we are already taking action in the vineyard to maximize the caliber of the fruit to come—starting with pruning.
As our Director of Winemaking Mike Sinor says, “The 2014 vintage starts right now with pruning season. The wines of 2014 are already being shaped by things we are doing in the vineyard—long before the grapes have even started growing.”
Our estate Margarita Vineyard is planted to a VSP (for vertical shoot position) trellis system. With this system, the main part of the vine is shaped like a “T,” with the vine branches trained upward with catchwires. The vines in a VSP system consist of four key parts: the trunk, the arms (called cordons), the spurs (the large knobs on the cordons) and the canes (the branches).
We prune for quality over quantity, so we select one cane per spur and cut it back so that just two buds remain. The buds will open up during “bud break” in early spring. From the buds grow new canes and, ultimately, the grape clusters.
Pruning sets the stage for the upcoming growing season. With pruning, you directly control your grape yields, which in turn impacts fruit balance and intensity. Pruning decisions also affect the amount of sunlight and airflow that will penetrate the fruiting zone of the vine. Diffused sunlight aids with grape ripening, while healthy airflow keeps mildew in check.
Smart pruning requires training and commitment. The vineyard crew must move quickly, making split-second decisions on where to best make their cuts.
“When deciding where to cut, you have to think of where you want the clusters to sit on the vine,” says Vineyard Manager Jaime Muniz. “You want to separate the clusters as much as you can to get that airflow and sunlight, and to deliver the best quality to the winery.”
And so begins the vintage to come...
Our Director of Winemaking Mike Sinor likes to call it “moon dust,” but it actually comes from the ocean, not outer space…
Of course, we are talking about the uplifted ancient sea bed at our estate Margarita Vineyard, along a block that we call Oyster Ridge.
Here, massive white oyster fossils—some as large as footballs—are literally spilling out of the ground, embedded in fine pale calcareous soil that looks like, well, moon dust.
Considering that Margarita Vineyard is tucked into the Santa Lucia Mountains at the top of the towering Cuesta Grade above San Luis Obispo, the sight of old sea creatures here is rather astonishing. So, how did they get here?
Well, the vineyard is tucked between two local seismic faults, and it is located only about 45 miles from the massive San Andreas fault. Over thousands of years, tectonic grinding and localized earthquakes have turned the old inland sea into today’s dry ground.
Still, you rarely see an ancient sea bed exposed along the surface like you do at Margarita Vineyard. We just happen to be located in a very geologically active spot, which explains why the vineyard spans a rare array of five soil types.
But the bottom-line question is: What does all of this mean to the wine?
For starters, Calcium-rich soil is coveted by winemakers worldwide. And considering that Wine & Spirits Magazine called Oyster Ridge “perhaps the most dramatically calcareous chunk of earth in the entire state,” that is saying a lot.
“Oyster Ridge is planted predominantly to Bordeaux varietals,” Mike says. “The fruit from this soil displays pretty aromatics, with high-toned flavors and really fine tannins. The Cabernet from this spot is different from the Cabernet on other parts of the ranch.”
He adds, “At the end of the day, it gives us another color to paint with, and to create an estate Cabernet blend with balance and complexity.”
You’ve probably seen a stainless steel wine tank before. In fact, you walk right by them on most winery tours. Stainless steel tanks are popular in winemaking because they are durable, easy to clean and temperature controlled. You can ferment and/or age wines in stainless steel, depending on the style of wine you're trying to achieve.
Stainleess steel tanks are fairly straightforward vessels, but they do have a lot of moving parts. Have you ever wondered what all of the ports and levers are for? If so, here’s the scoop:
The swirling patterns along the side of the tank are glycol channels. Glycol is a viscous liquid that can be chilled well below 32 degrees without freezing. We typically chill our glycol to a temperature of 25 degrees. As it flows through the channels around the jacket, the cold glycol chills the wine to a desired temperature. We can control the wine temperature with a thermostat (the little box on the right) that regulates the glycol. Temperature level plays a major role in shaping fermentations as well as the aging environment.
When new wine is placed in a tank, natural solids settle to the bottom and become what is known as “lees.” The lees can be fairly thick at the bottom of the tank, so when you want to rack (ie: transfer) the wine, you start by hooking up the hose to the higher valve on the left, known as the racking valve, to make sure you’re not sucking out a bunch of lees.
Once you’ve racked wine via the racking valve, you can open the upper racking door. That allows you to peer in and see how much more wine you can manually skim off the top of the lees.
This gives you access to the inside of the tank for cleaning and removing lees. Come on out, we could use a hand!
The bottom valve is used for filling an empty tank.
The tiny little valve protruding on the right of the tank allows you to quickly draw a sample of wine for evaluative purposes.