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We are inching ever closer to the 2014 harvest, but the hard work has already begun in the vineyard.
One of our pre-harvest activities is green harvesting, a.k.a. “crop dropping”—the act of removing imperfect grape clusters from our red variety vineyard blocks.
Our crew travels down the vine rows, looking for grape clusters that are lagging in the ripening process—specifically those that are still more than 50 percent green after veraison is well underway (click here for more on veraison). These clusters are unceremoniously cut from the vine and left to compost back into the vineyard.
By removing these greener clusters, we achieve three things: (1) we establish more uniform ripeness in the remaining fruit; (2) we reduce the crop load, allowing the vine to impart more intensity to the remaining fruit; and (3) we open up the fruit zone, creating more airflow to reduce the chance of mildew later in the season.
Of course, it would be easier to not invest the time and money into green harvesting, and to leave more crop in order to maximize production—but when quality is the name of the game, you go the extra mile.
In the following video, you can see crop dropping in action, courtesy of a team training session with our tasting room staff.
There’s word that at least one winery in Santa Barbara County is harvesting Pinot Noir today (that’s right, in July!), a sure sign that we are all headed for a very early harvest in 2014.
Or are we?
At our estate Margarita Vineyard, our fruit is only just beginning to show signs of “veraison”—the process whereby the berries turn color and transition from the growth phase to the ripening phase. In other words, we still have a ways to go before the harvest begins in earnest at Margarita Vineyard.
According to Winemaker Stewart Cameron, our harvest timing is stacking up to be similar to last year, which was somewhat early by historical standards, but not extraordinarily so.
At the same time, many other wineries are said to be on pace for harvesting up to two or three weeks earlier than normal. This has been a year with mild-to-warm temperatures and very little rain—conditions that are known to accelerate things in the vineyard.
So why is Margarita Vineyard trailing by comparison? The reasons go to the heart of what makes the vineyard unique from a climate perspective.
Margarita Vineyard is sheltered by the coastal mountains and can be very cold in the spring, so the vines take their time emerging from dormancy, resulting in a later start to the growing season.
Then, come summertime, a pronounced marine influence begins to exert itself. As the southernmost vineyard in the Paso Robles region, Margarita Vineyard is located just 14 miles from the Pacific Ocean, and the afternoons tend to be considerably cooler than other areas of Paso Robles. The same mountains that shelter the vineyard in the spring are powerless to stop the cold marine air rushing over their peaks, and the result is an extended growing season and later ripening.
In the end, we don’t mind being later than most, because we feel that the extra “hang time” allows the grapes to develop intense flavors without losing their structure and balance.
We talk a lot about the rare diversity of soils at our estate Margarita Vineyard, but sometimes it’s helpful to dig a bit deeper to get the complete story.
On that note, we are excited to share the accompanying photos of the pronounced shale soils in our Block 32 Zinfandel.
While plenty of shale flakes percolate up to the surface in this part of the vineyard, much of the soil base is obscured by a thin layer of topsoil. By digging pits, we are able to get a much better look at exactly what the vines are rooted in, and to discover exactly what lies beneath.
In the above photo, you can see the layer of darker topsoil along the top of the ground. Below that is the deep base of compacted stratified shale. You can often pry this shale apart with your bare hands. Some of the pieces crumble apart into thin wafers, as if Mother Nature had neatly stacked a million corn flakes. It’s truly a geologic marvel.
Many people will look at this and ask, “Vines grow in that!?”
The answer is yes, but that doesn’t mean it’s easy. When vines grow in extreme rocky conditions like this, the roots are challenged and soil moisture is scarce. This results in vines with limited vigor and smaller yields that produce intensely flavored grapes—and ultimately exceptional wine.
Shale is one of five soil types that ebb and flow through Margarita Vineyard, the others being volcanic, granitic, rocky alluvium and ancient sea bed. Not all of these soil zones are as visually extreme as the shale pictured here, but each brings its own unique influence to our wines (for example, check out this earlier post on our ancient sea bed soils).
If you hear us talking about soils a lot, this is why. Soil diversity speaks to the uniqueness of our place, and therefore the essence of our wines. You can see it with your eyes, and you can taste it in the glass.
Earlier this week, we wrote about how two producers from The Weather Channel visited us to explore the effects of the current drought.
We are now pleased to share that their segment on the Paso Robles wine country and our estate Margarita Vineyard aired today as part of a larger series called “Cracked: California.”
This segment does an admirable job of reporting on the challenges of the current drought as well as the sustainable water conservation practices that we and other winegrowers are employing to mitigate drought impacts.
You can click here to view the segment on Weather.com.
Last week, we were visited by a couple of producers from The Weather Channel, who came to the Paso Robles wine country as part of a larger story on drought conditions across the West.
Viticulturist and Ancient Peaks Co-Owner Doug Filipponi (pictured above) and Director of Winemaking Mike Sinor enjoyed showing them around our estate Margarita Vineyard, and sharing their thoughts and strategies for conserving water in the vineyard.
There’s no denying that the drought is troubling. Water management is now on the front-burner of the civic discourse in many California communities, including our own. It could get worse before it gets better. An El Niño year can’t come fast enough.
However, it’s still possible to maintain an optimistic outlook as we head out to work in the vineyard each morning. We have survived past droughts. Mother Nature is resilient, and has been known to follow drought years with abundant rainfall. In fact, some are predicting that El Niño conditions may begin later this year.
This doesn’t mean we can turn a blind eye to the drought, or that we needn’t consider the possibility that climate change is intensifying our drought cycles in California. It just means that we’re keeping our finger off the panic button and focusing on what we can do in the vineyard to ride this drought out.
As a SIP (Sustainability in Practice) certified winery, we are proactive when it comes to resource conservation. For example, we have installed “pulse emitters” throughout the vineyard for frost protection. These emitters cut water usage by more than 30 percent compared to traditional overhead frost-protection sprinklers. We are also vigilant when it comes to monitoring soil moisture with the latest technologies, so that we only irrigate when absolutely necessary, and only with the necessary amount of water.
These are things that we can control, so that is where our focus lies—on making the most of what we have without borrowing trouble. Of course, we’ll keep praying for rain as well.
We were honored last week to host a group of top sommeliers as part of the CABs of Distinction festivities across Paso Robles. They came out for a tour of our estate Margarita Vineyard, and for a look at the vineyard’s rare diversity of soil types. They tasted our wines along the way, and were the first people outside of the winery to experience our Cabernet Sauvignon soil trials in progress.
To say that these folks have discriminating palates would be an understatement, so we were pleased when they seemed to like what they tasted. The wine that really seemed to ring some bells was our new 2011 Cabernet Sauvignon “Jackpot,” a limited-edition reserve wine made from four selected barrels.
The soil trial tasting consisted of 2013 Cabernet Sauvignon barrel samples from three distinct soil types. During the last harvest, our winemakers, Mike Sinor and Stewart Cameron, chose fruit from three separate Cabernet Sauvignon blocks rooted in ancient sea bed, diablo series clay and Monterey shale, all picked at the same ripeness. Each of these small Cabernet Sauvignon lots is now being made with the same winemaking and aging practices. This will give us a more controlled opportunity to compare the effects of the soils and to share our discoveries.
“The somms were very knowledgeable, and I think they appreciated the fact that we offered something different,” Mike says. “Few vineyards have five distinct soil types like ours, so it’s natural for us to focus on that and share how it shapes our wines.”
On that note, here are our current observations on the soil trials at the moment:
• Block 15 – Ancient Sea Bed
Rich, dense, black fruit core. Shy nose will open up in time.
• Block 50 Bottom – Diablo Series Clay (Rocky Alluvium)
More red fruit on the nose, cherry, zingy, bright and high toned.
• Block 50 Top – Monterey Shale
Earthy, mineral aromas. Supple, round black and red fruit on the palate.
Of course, it’s still early and the wines will evolve, but the distinctions are already apparent. Stay tuned for more details as the trials progress.
The following post is copied from Ancient Peaks co-owner and viticulturist Doug Filipponi's contribution to the Paso Robles Grower Blog. Click here to check out this regional blog and to keep up with the growing season across Paso Robles.
The 2014 vintage is officially underway in our estate Margarita Vineyard and across the Paso Robles region with the recent advent of “bud break,” the process whereby the buds on the vines open up and burst forth with fresh green growth.
Vines that looked dormant and skeletal just a few weeks ago now look very much alive, and the growing season is upon us. As we head into April, the new growth is taking shape as spindly shoots, small leaves and tiny flowers. Later this spring, the flowers will self-pollinate and set the crop for the 2014 vintage.
This year, bud break has arrived about a week earlier than average, due to a dry and relatively warm winter, as well as picture-perfect spring weather in mid-March with temperatures reaching the mid-80s for a few days. In other words, there was nothing holding the vines back from getting the show on the road.
As always, the priority right now is to protect the delicate new growth from frost damage. As you may know, Paso Robles is blessed with beneficial “diurnal” temperature swings. Temperature differences of 40 and even 50 degrees are not uncommon within a 24-hour period during the heart of the growing season. The warm days enable the fruit to develop rich, ripe flavors, while the cool nights help maintain balance and structure – all hallmarks of the wines of Paso Robles.
In the spring, however, those temperature swings can take us all the way below freezing by morning time – and once the mercury dips below 32-degrees, it can spell trouble in the vineyard. If left unchecked, frost can throttle the new growth and the vine will lose its new leaves and flowers.
Therefore, vineyard crews must be alert and vigilant whenever there’s a chance of frost – and they must act quickly to turn on the frost control systems when necessary. At Margarita Vineyard, we have five weather stations to warn us of low temperatures throughout the vineyard. We use targeted pulsator sprinklers during frost events. These pulsator sprinklers are trained on the cordons, coating the vine with a fine spray. The water freezes around the new growth and creates a protective barrier from outside temperatures that dip below 32 degrees. When ice is forming, it creates heat. It also creates heat when it’s melting. So yes, ironically, we use ice to protect the vines from frost damage!
Mother Nature has done her job once again, and the vines are fully awakened. It’s now our job to protect what we have been given. Looking forward, we are bullish on the 2014 vintage in Paso Robles. There’s still a ways to go, but we are off to a good start.
At our estate Margarita Vineyard, sustainability isn’t just a buzzword—it’s a true force of resource conservation with positive benefits to both the vineyard environment and the resulting wines.
With the new growing season about to get rolling with spring bud break, one of our most effective sustainable practices is set to play a role in the 2014 vintage.
This would be “compost tea,” a liquefied natural compost fertilizer that is delivered right to the root zone of the vines via our drip irrigation lines. The use of compost tea has drastically cut our use of synthetic fertilizers, creating a more balanced soil composition and providing wholesome nutrients to the vines.
We “brew” our compost tea mainly from “vermicompost,” a fancy name for worm castings. We cultivate worm beds on site specifically for creating compost tea. The brewing cycle is 24 hours. The brew can include brewer’s yeast, kelp and molasses to help grow the mix of beneficial bacteria and fungi. Once brewed, the tea is ready for delivery to the vines.
For the vines, it’s like eating green vegetables (compost tea) compared to simply taking a multivitamin (traditional fertilizers). The uptake of nutrients is more complete, natural and thorough. It also avoids the nitrate soil buildup that can occur with traditional fertilizers.
The result is a more balanced vine that allows us to maximize fruit quality. Additionally, we maintain a healthier soil profile that is better for the vineyard environment and the creatures (and people) who inhabit it.
Even though we finally had some late rains this winter, we are still expecting an early “bud break.”
Indeed, as of today, we are expecting bud break to begin about 10 days earlier than average at our estate Margarita Vineyard, which means it should be coming very soon.
Bud break occurs when the vine buds open and push the first green growth of the vintage. It’s the moment when the vines truly awaken from dormancy and inaugurate the growing season.
The dry, relatively warm winter of 2014 means that the vines have been encouraged to awaken sooner rather than later, hence the expected early bud break.
During bud break, the buds open to reveal thin shoots, small leaves and tiny flowers that, in the months ahead, will become long canes, large leaves and juicy grape clusters.
The young growth is delicate and vulnerable to frost. And with bud breaking coming early this year, it means that this new growth will be exposed to a longer window of potential frost events.
In the short video above, Director of Winemaking Mike Sinor and Vineyard Manager Jaime Muniz talk about the road to bud break. Stay tuned for updates from the vineyard!
Our estate Margarita Vineyard is blessed with a rare array of five soil types, and these soil differences from block to block have always been notable in the wines they deliver.
The geographical map pictured below provides a visual explanation as to why Margarita Vineyard is such a ground zero for soil diversity.
We have cropped the map to show the location of Margarita Vineyard, and all of the black lines you see are fault lines. This abundance of localized faults has churned and turned the terrain over time, which explains why you can see everything from uplifted fossilized sea beds, thick fields of shale, rocky plains of alluvium and more during a short walk through the vineyard.
Why does soil diversity matter to us? Well, it allows us to build natural complexity into a single estate-grown wine. For winemakers Mike Sinor and Stewart Cameron, it’s like giving them more colors to paint with.
Starting with the 2013 vintage, we are taking our interest in soil influence to the next level by conducting a more controlled trial of Cabernet Sauvignon lots grown in calcareous ancient sea bed, diablo series clay and Monterey shale. Each lot was farmed the same in terms of crop load and irrigation; harvested at similar ripeness; went through the same fermentation protocols; and was racked to the same barrels (once-used Taransaud barrels with medium+ toast levels).
In the above video, Stewart provides an update on these lots four months after harvest. And so far, the differences are pretty striking.
The ancient sea bed lot from Block 15 is showing a deep, dense black fruit character. The diablo series clay lot from the bottom of Block 50 is exhibiting a zingy red fruit quality, while the Monterey shale lot from the top of Block 50 is showing plum and boysenberry with assertive tannins.
Stay tuned, as we will be following these wines to see how they mature from ground to glass, and looking into ways to share the results at special tastings down the line.